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Multiple choice questions, hazard perception test

To get your full driving licence you need to pass two tests, theory test and practical test.

Theory test
The theory test is made up of two parts; the multiple choice part and the hazard perception part. If you pass one part and fail the other you'll fail the whole test, and you'll need to take both parts again. Once you have passed the theory test you can then apply to take your driving practical test or motorcycle practical test.

You can practice DSA theory test questions online and get ready for DSA theory test.

A. Multiple choice element in theory test

  • The theory test is a computer-based test at various tests centres around the country.

  • This section is designed to test your understanding of the theory behind driving.

  • Before the driving theory test starts you'll be given instructions on how the test works.
    You can also choose to go through a practice session of the multiple choice questions to get used to the layout of the test. At the end of the practice session the real test will begin.

  • You have 57 minutes to complete the test. There is a 15-minute practice session you can work through before starting the tests.

  • The questions in each multiple choice test vary according to the category of vehicle you're hoping to obtain a licence for, i.e. a motorcycle theory test will contain specific questions that don't appear in any other test.

  • A question and several answer options will appear onscreen and you have to select the correct answer to the question by touching the screen. Some questions may require more than one answer.

  • You can navigate between questions and 'flag' questions that you want to come back to later in the test. After the multiple choice part you can choose to have a break of up to three minutes before the hazard perception part starts.

  • For car and motorbike theory test, you'll be asked randomly selected 45 multiple-choice questions and 5 marks case study style questions in 57 minutes and you need to get at least 43 right to pass. For lorries and buses you'll be asked 60 questions in 70 minutes and the pass mark is 51 out of 60.

  • The cost of the theory test is £31
B. Hazard perception test
After the break you'll then be shown a short tutorial video clip about how the hazard perception part works.
  • This forms a second section of the theory test and must be passed at the same time.

  • This section is designed to tests your awareness of potential hazards whilst driving.

  • The hazard perception part is also delivered on a computer but you respond by clicking a button on the mouse.

  • You'll be presented with a series of 14 video clips each about a minute long, which feature every day road scenes. In each clip there'll be at least one developing hazard, but one of the clips will feature two developing hazards.

  • The videos feature various types of hazard, such as road conditions, vehicles and pedestrians.

  • The earlier you spot a hazard developing that may require the driver to take some action, the higher the score.

  • There are 15 scoreable hazards in the tests and candidates can score up to 5 points on each hazard.

  • Unlike multiple choice questions , for the hazard perception test there are no separate versions for different vehicles e.g. car, bike, heavy vehicle etc, each vehicle category takes the same test, however the pass mark is different for different categories of tests.

  • You won't be able to review your answers to the hazard perception test; as on the road, you'll only have one chance to respond to the developing hazard.

  • The pass mark for the car and motorcycle hazard perception part of the theory test is 44 out of 75. For lorries and buses the pass mark is 50 out of 75.

Actual DSA theory test screen Actual hazard perception test screen

At the end of the DSA test
At the end of the hazard perception part of the theory test you'll be invited to answer a number of customer survey questions.

You don't have to answer the questions if you don't want to, and any information given is anonymous and confidential. The survey questions don't affect the result of the test.

When you have finished the test you may leave the examination room. Once you have left the room, you'll not be allowed to enter it again. You'll then be given your result by the test centre staff.

Improvements to driving theory test

A new element is being introduced to the driving theory exam to test learners on their understanding of  driving, rather than just their knowledge of the facts.
From 28 September 2009, one case study will be included in the exam for car drivers, moped and motorcycle riders.

As part of the multiple choice section of the test, the case study will assess candidates' understanding of driving theory, while the multiple choice questions will continue to assess their knowledge of the subject.

The theory test case study will take the form of a scenario, or short story, on which five questions will
be based. Candidates will answer the questions in the same way as they do now, using either the touch screen or mouse.

If you have understood all the current questions in the DSA theory test question bank, then there is no need to worry.

So multiple choice element of the theory test will be of
  • 45 multiple choice questions = 45 marks
  • One case study scenario with 5 questions to answer = 5 marks
  • The pass mark = 43/50
Click here for case study practice

What DSA says about the new case studies section in theory test?

DSA's Director of Driver Education and Learning, Jill Lewis, said: "Case studies are widely used in
education to put learning into context and test comprehension of a subject, so many candidates will have  encountered this type of question before.

There are 25 case study questions in the theory test question bank,  for candidates to get used to the concept.

Hazard Perception Test The Facts

The hazard perception (or awareness) test consists of 14 video clips, each about a minute long. Each clip shows driving situations involving other road users and is shot from a car driver's point of view. As each clip plays a hazard - something that will cause the driver to change speed, direction or stop will develop. In 13 of the clips you will have one hazard to identify, in the other, two. You will not be told which hazard perception test clip is the two hazard clip.

You identify the correct hazard or hazards by clicking on either the left or right mouse button. The earlier you identify the correct hazard or hazards the more you score. The scoring goes from five to zero points.

Don't think you can continuously and frantically smoother the screen with clicks as the hazard perception clip plays. If you do you will score zero. However, you will not lose points for clicking on other potential hazards that may also be seen.

So, you watch a clip and in that clip you will see several potential hazards unfolding. Most will stay exactly that, potential hazards but one (or two) will become an actual hazard and cause the vehicle (the camera shot, the driver's point of view) to change speed, direction or stop. This is the hazard you must click on in order to score points. Clicking on the potential hazards will neither score you points nor lose you points.

Watch the Official DSA Hazard Perception Introduction Video

Pass Rate

To pass the hazard perception test you must score at least 44 points out of a possible 75.


The hazard perception test is the second part of the driving theory test. After you finish the multiple-choice section (the actual theory test) you will be permitted a break of up to 3 minutes. A short tutorial video on the hazard perception test will then play, once finished the hazard perception test will begin.

Definition of A Hazard

A hazard can be anything that causes a driver to change the speed, direction or stop the vehicle they are driving. Although in real life a hazard may be static such as a set of traffic lights, a junction or a bend, these are not the sorts of hazards that you will need to identify during the hazard perception test. During the hazard perception test you will need to identify hazards that develop and thus have motion such as a bus pulling away from a bus stop or a lollypop lady stepping into the road.

Potential Hazards - What To Look Out For

Road signs, they often relate to a hazard ahead.
Pedestrians - walkers, children playing, people with walking sticks.
Cyclists and motorbikes - especially young cyclists.
Emergency vehicles.
Poor visibility - especially bright sun low in sky, dusk, rain and spray.
Poor road conditions - rain, fog, ice and snow.
Blind bends.
Lane changing - especially vehicles swerving to avoid hazards.
Brake lights on vehicles.
Indicator lights flashing.

Residential Streets
Urban driving
Cars pulling out.
Children playing near the road.
Pedestrians stepping out from behind cars.
Vehicles pulling out of side roads. Especially those vehicles with restricted views.
Pedestrians crossing roads.
Cars stopping to park.
Oncoming traffic.
Traffic restrictions.
Being forced out to the middle of the road by parking cars.

Roads Near Schools
Children playing near the road, especially ball games.
Children crossing without looking.
Crossing patrols and other forms of crossings.
Children cycling on pavements.
Ice cream vans.

Country Roads
Single lane roads.
Farm traffic and field gateways.
Animals, especially horses and riders, cows and sheep.
Blind bends.
Objects in the road especially manure, mud, hay and water.
People walking against the flow of traffic.

Cars breaking down.
Cars leaving the motorway.
Cars changing lanes to overtake slower moving traffic.
Cars joining the motorway.
Emergency vehicles.
Stationary traffic
Road works.
Traffic traveling much more quickly or much more slowly than your vehicle.

Preparing For The Hazard Perception Test

To prepare for the hazard perception test try testing yourself. Take a journey by car and watch the road ahead. Numerous hazards will emerge. Some will develop others won't. Can you tell which? Although the Driving Standards Agency (DSA) doesn't release the actual hazard perception test clips there are books and multi-media that have example hazard perception test clips etc.

Mock Hazard Perception Tests - Below are links to six online hazard perception tests. The video clips are taken from the official DSA practice bank so they give a good idea of what you will need to do when taking the actual hazard peception test.

Theory test appointments can be booked, and subject to three clear working days notice, be changed and cancelled using our online booking service or the telephone. You can also download an application form and apply by post.

Before you can take your theory test you'll need to make sure you have a valid provisional driving licence. You can apply for a provisional driving licence from the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA). The application form D1 can be obtained from your local Post Office.

Once you have a valid Provisional driving licence you can book your theory test. Waiting times vary from region to region, but the target is that 95 per cent of theory test candidates receive an appointment date within two weeks of their preferred date.

Booking Online

To book a theory test online you'll need:

  • a valid UK Provisional driving licence
  • a valid debit or credit card for payment  (Visa, MasterCard, Delta, Visa Electron, Switch/Maestro and Solo cards are accepted)

The quickest and easiest way to book your car or motorcycle driving test is to use the Driving Standards Agency (DSA) online booking service. You can:

  • choose your test centre
  • choose the time and date of your test
  • check your test appointment details
  • change or cancel your test if your circumstances change

As a new user, you may find it helpful to read the information pages before using this online service.

Information pages and link to online test booking services (opens new window)

If you have used this booking service before and are a confident user please continue using the direct links below.

Booking by Phone
To book a theory test with an operator over the phone you'll need:

  • a valid UK Provisional driving licence
  • a valid debit or credit card for payment  (Visa, MasterCard, Delta, Visa Electron, Switch/Maestro and Solo cards are accepted)

You can book a theory test over the phone using the numbers below, from 8.00 am to 6.00 pm except on Bank Holidays.

Theory test booking line 0300 200 1122
Welsh language booking line 0300 200 1133
Minicom booking line 0300 200 1166
Fax booking line 0300 200 1177

Booking by Post
To book a theory test by post you'll need an application form. Application forms are available online or on request from the Driving Standards Agency (DSA) booking line. Payment can be made by cheque or postal order, but cash payments aren't accepted.

Cancelling or Rescheduling a Test
You can reschedule or cancel a test over the phone via the booking line or you can do it online. Providing you give DSA three clear working days notice you can:

    • move or change your appointment
    • cancel your appointment
    • have a full refund of test fee

Driving test fees

Driving test fees effective from 01 April 2008 unless otherwise stated.

Theory test fees


Standard fee for car and motorcycle


Standard fee for lorry and bus


Potential / Approved Driving Instructor (ADI)


Practical test type

Weekday price

Weekday evening and weekend price




Tractor and other specialist vehicles






Lorry and bus



Car and trailer



Extended test for disqualified drivers

Weekday price

Saturday price